User guide#

This page gives an introduction on the features of Quiz.

Executing a simple query#

Making a simple GraphQL query is easy. We’ll use github’s API v4 as an example.

>>> import quiz
>>> query = '''
...   {
...     repository(owner: "octocat", name: "Hello-World") {
...       createdAt
...       description
...     }
...   }
... '''
>>> quiz.execute(query, url='',
...              auth=('me', 'password'))
{"repository": ...}

execute() allows us to specify the query as text (str), along with the target url and authentication credentials. Executing such a query returns the result as JSON.

Retrieving a schema#

When performing multiple requests to a GraphQL API, it is useful to retrieve its Schema. The schema will allow us to:

  • validate queries

  • convert responses into python objects

  • introspect types and fields

The fastest way to retrieve a Schema is to grab it right from the API with from_url(). Let’s retrieve GitHub’s GraphQL schema:

>>> schema = quiz.Schema.from_url('',
...                               auth=('me', 'password'))

The schema contains python classes for GraphQL types. These can be inspected with python’s own help():

>>> help(schema.Repository)
class Repository(Node, ProjectOwner, Subscribable, Starrable,
 UniformResourceLocatable, RepositoryInfo, quiz.types.Object)
 |  A repository contains the content for a project.
 |  Method resolution order:
 |      ...
 |  Data descriptors defined here:
 |  assignableUsers
 |      : UserConnection
 |      A list of users that can be assigned to issues in this repo
 |  codeOfConduct
 |      : CodeOfConduct or None
 |      Returns the code of conduct for this repository

In the next section, we will see how this will allow us to easily write and validate queries.

Constructing GraphQL#

As we’ve seen in the first section, we can execute queries in text form. Using the Schema, however, we can write GraphQL using python syntax. To do this, we use the SELECTOR object combined with python’s slice syntax.

The example below shows how we can recreate our original query in this syntax:

>>> from quiz import SELECTOR as _
>>> query = schema.query[
...     _
...     .repository(owner='octocat', name='hello-world')[
...         _
...         .createdAt
...         .description
...     ]
... ]

We can easily convert this to a GraphQL string:

>>> str(query)
query {
  repository(owner: "octocat", name: "Hello-World") {

The main advantage of using python syntax is to catch mistakes before sending anything to the API. For example, what would happen if we added a non-existent field?

>>> schema.query[
...     _
...     .repository(owner='octocat', name='hello-world')[
...         _
...         .createdAt
...         .description
...         .foo
...     ]
... ]
SelectionError: SelectionError on "Query" at path "repository":

    SelectionError: SelectionError on "Repository" at path "foo":

        NoSuchField: field does not exist

Now we are confident with our query, we can use execute() to evaluate the result.

>>> result = quiz.execute(query)

Because we’ve used the schema, the response is automatically loaded into the correct data types: we can use . to access fields on the results

>>> result.repository.description
"My first repository on GitHub!"
>>> isinstance(result.repository, schema.Repository)

See also

The advanced topics section has more information about: